The gelato is the variant regional Italian of ice cream. As such, it is made with the same ingredients as most other desserts dairy frozen milk, cream, various sugars and flavors, including fruits and nuts. When you incorporate other ingredients, they are added after freezing the gelato. The gelato ice cream differs from the rest in having a lower content of milk fat, typically from 4 to 8% (was added skimmed milk as solid). Also usually low in sugar, taking between 16 and 22%, this amount carefully balanced with water to prevent it from freezing while. The sugars used are sucrose and dextrose, using invert sugar to control the sweetness of the final product. Typically, gelato and sorbet Italian contain a stabilizing basis, usually egg yolk based flavors in cream yellow, as Zabaione and custard.
The mixture of ingredients is usually done in hot, including pasteurization. The white base is heated to 85 ° C, increasing to 90 ° C in the case of gelato of chocolate, traditionally made from cocoa powder. The base cream yellow yolk is heated to 65 ° C. The mixture for gelato need stand several hours after pasteurization to milk proteins or join hydrate water. This hydration reduce the size of ice crystals, resulting in a soft texture of the final product.
Unlike other types of industrial ice cream that is frozen in a refrigerator of continuous operation, the gelato is frozen very quickly in individual small portions. The refrigerator incorporates air used to this mixture as it freezes, to be a 20 to 35% of the total. This makes the final product is thicker and has a more intense flavor, at the cost of reducing its expiration date. The gelato artisan high quality holds its texture (due to the delicate ice crystals) and optimum flavor only a few days, even if carefully stored at the proper temperature. Therefore the gelaterias often make their own ice cream on the premises or nearby.
The history of gelato dates back to frozen desserts served in Sicily, ancient Rome and Egypt, which were made with ice and snow brought from mountaintops and preserved below ground. More recently gelato appeared at banquets of the court of the Medici in Florence. In fact, said the Florentine cook Bernardo Buontalenti invented modern ice cream in 1565, when he presented his recipe and his innovative refrigerating techniques to Catherine de Medici, who in turn exported the novelty to France, where in 1686 the fisherman Sicilian Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli perfected the first machine refrigerator.
However, the popularity of gelato among the general public did not grow until the 1920s and 1930s, when the city of Varese, northern Italy, developed the first ice cream cart.
Ice cream is a substance which by freezing a solid or solid-like substance is, which is in a frozen state for consumption, is intended, and is substantially composed of cream, milk and sugar, and that as an additional ingredient may be added to only one or more of the following food products: coffee, chocolate (and the like), fruits (including: jams, jams, nuts, nut butters and fruit syrups), caramel sauce, honey, vanilla (sticks, essence), salt, alcohol, nutrition casein / whey powder, aromatics (except artificial aromatics) and ethyl vanillin. Ice cream must contain at least 5% milk fat. It should not contain milk fat.
Milk ice is ice cream, but with a lower milk fat content (2.5%). Often simply classified as milk ice cream. Battle cream is very similar to ice cream, but has a slightly higher fat content. This is because the whipped cream has been added, in place of the less fat-containing cream. The global ice cream market is dominated by two major groups: Unilever and Nestle. In addition, several local companies active markets. Early forms of ice cream were four thousand years ago when the Chinese are known. Also in the Persian Empire was served ice. The Romans would have spoken of a first sorbet. They were fond of, and served their guests a variety of ice-cream dishes prepared with snow, mixed with honey, rose water and fruit.
For the history of ice cream, we must return to the beginning of the Renaissance (early 15th century ). The technique of cooling already existed, but was constantly refined. More and more resources were available through trade with the colonies.